History of development of Kamchatka

This wonderful earth has been open by Russian Cossacks more 300 years ago, but Russians and today it is not enough that know about it.
In 15 century Russian came out with the assumption of existence of Northern sea way from Atlantic to Pacific ocean and did attempts to find this way.
The first data on peninsula concern the middle of 15 centuries. In September, 1648 expedition of Fedota Alekseeva and Simeon Dezhneva was in passage between Asia and America which later 80 years anew will be opened by Bering. Travelers were put ashore where have met "many good chukches".
Later коч Fedota Alekseeva, judging by the data collected by expedition of Bering, has been beaten to coast of Kamchatka. Fedot Alexeys was the first Russian мореходом, landed and wintering on this peninsula.

Kamchatka long before occurrence of the first Russian землепроходцев has been occupied.
It is a lot of tribes and nationalities lived on its severe coast. Koryaks, эвены, Aleuts, ительмены and чукчи lived in tundra, in mountains, at coast.
The image of Kamchatka has appeared for the first time on "the printing drawing of Siberia" 1667
Later 30 years salesman Vladimir Atlasov at the head of group in 120 persons has gone to a campaign - "for a mine new zemlic" and has put Verhnekamchatsk.
It delivered data on the earth lying between the river Kolyma and America to Moscow. It is considered to be Vladimir Atlasova’s activity the beginning of development by Russian of Kamchatka.

Researches and opening in the northeast of Russia proceeded and in the beginning of 18 centuries. Differently imagined Kamchatka at that time, differently represented these representations.
For example at Simeon Remezova on "the Drawing of all Siberian градов and the earths" big "island Kamchatka" is designated, and the river Kamchatka flows from continent to the east, in ocean. And it, Remezov represents Kamchatka already peninsula, truth far from our today’s representations about its configuration later.
Yet once researchers will consider Kamchatka that as island, peninsula; in the atlas of Gomana published in 1725, there is a card where to the left of Kamchatka Caspian sea is represented.
About that expert Russian people knew about the northeast of Asia up the time of Bering’s expedition, it is possible to judge on a card of Siberia made by geodesist Zinovevym in 1727.
The Northeast extremity of Asia there is washed by the sea where two capes - the Nose Shalatsky (Shelagsky) and the Nose Anadyrsky press, to the south from which the peninsula Kamchatka lasts.
Composers and executors of a card clearly imagined that Asia in the northeast doesn’t incorporate to any continent, that is the card denied Peter’s 1 assumption, "America hasn’t converged with Asia ль".
And as Bering’s opening in the passage carrying his name, have been made later, in August, 1728, clearly that they couldn’t affect drawing of a card of geodesist Zinoveva.

 In January, 1725, under Peter’s decree 1 the First Kamchatka expedition which besides Vitus Bering, has given stories such names, as Alexey Chirikov and Martyn Shpanberg has been organized.
The first Kamchatka expedition has brought the major contribution to development of geographical representations about the northeast of Asia, and first of all from southern limits of Kamchatka to northern coast of Chukotka. However to prove that Asia and America are divided by passage, authentically it was not possible.
When on August, 15th, 1728 expedition has reached 67 degrees of 18 minutes of a northern latitude and it was not possible to see any earth, Bering has decided that the problem is executed, and has ordered to return back. Differently, Bering hasn’t seen neither the American coast, nor that the Asian continent turns to the West, that is "turns" to Kamchatka.
On returning Bering has submitted a note in which the project of new expedition to the east Kamchatka contained.
Bering was the true researcher and esteemed a point of honor and a patriotic debt to complete the begun.

The second Kamchatka expedition has been declared "the most distant and by difficult and never before skilled".
Achievement of northwest coast of America, opening of a sea way to Japan, development in east and northern earths of the industry, crafts, землепашества was its problem. It was simultaneously recommended to send "kind and knowing people" for "проведывания and descriptions" northern coast of Siberia from Ob to Kamchatka.
During preparation for Expedition the circle of its problems extended. Finally it has led to that efforts of progressively conceiving figures of that time the Second Kamchatka expedition has turned to such scientific and political enterprise which has marked the whole epoch in studying of Siberia and the Far East.

During the period with 1733 for 1740 extensive researches by seamen and the scientists who were a part of expedition are made. In May, 1741 packets "St. Peter" and "St. Pavel" who should become primogenitors of Petropavlovsk, have approached to a mouth of the Avachinsky lip and began to wait for a fair wind. On June, 4th they have put to sea. Expedition went on the southeast ….
Almost at the very beginning of a campaign the bad weather has divided the ships, and everyone continued the way alone.
In the history of geographical opening there was one of surprising cases: two ships separately making swimmings within month, have approached almost in the same day to unknown coast of the fourth continent, thereby having begun research of the earths which have received subsequently the name of Russian America (Alaska). The packet "St. Pavel" with whom ordered Alesya Chirikov, has soon returned to the Peter and Paul harbor.
The destiny of "St. Peter" has developed less successfully. The storm, failure, serious illnesses has fallen upon travelers.
Having landed on known island, members of expedition bravely struggled with hunger, a cold, a scurvy.
Having endured extraordinary difficult wintering, they have constructed a new vessel of packet fragments and have managed to return to Kamchatka. But without the commodore.

On December, 8th, 1741, two hours prior to a dawn, the chief of expedition Vitus Bering has died. The commodore have buried on a Protestant ceremony close становища. However the place of a tomb of Bering precisely isn’t known.
Subsequently the Russian-American company have put on a prospective place of burial a wooden cross.
In 1892 officers of a schooner "Aleut" and employees on Commander Islands have established in a fencing of church of village Nikolsky on Bering island an iron cross and have enclosed with its anchor chain.
In 1944 seamen of Petropavlovsk have put on a place of a tomb of the commodore a steel cross on the cement base.
Scientific and practical results of expedition of Bering (especially - the Second) неисчислимы.
Here only pivotal of them. The way through Bering strait is found, Kamchatka, Kuriles and northern Japan are described.
Чириковым and Berengom northwest America is opened.
Krasheninnikov and Stellerom investigate Kamchatka.
The same list includes works of Gmelina on studying of Siberia, materials on the stories of Siberia collected by Miller.
Meteorological researches of expedition are interesting, they have served as an impulse to creation of constantly operating stations not only in Russia, but also on all globe.
At last, coast of Siberia from Vaigach to Anadyr - an outstanding feat in the history of geographical opening are described. It is only short list of that is made on the Kamchatka expedition.
Should cause respect such truly scientific and complex approach to work which was spent two and a half centuries ago.

The second Kamchatka expedition has immortalized on a map of the world and in memory of people names of its many participants: commodore Vitus Bering and the president of Admiralty N.F.Golovin, researchers and мореходы A.I.Chirikov and M.P.Shpanberg, S.G.Malygin and S.I.Cheljuskin, H.P.Laptev and D.J.Laptev, D.L.Ovtsyn and V.V.Pronchishchev.
Among Bering’s associates there were visible scientists. Names of academicians of Gmelina and Miller occupy a place of honor in the history of Russian and world science.
Stepan Petrovich Krasheninnikov was Miller’s the most talented assistant and Gmelina.
Name it carry one of islands at coast of Kamchatka, cape on island Karaginsky and mountain near Kronotsky lake on peninsula.
It the first of naturalists investigated Kamchatka. Four years Krasheninnikov wandered on these strange lands, in loneliness collecting materials on its geography, ethnography, a climate, history.
On the basis of them he has created capital scientific work "Description of the earth of Kamchatka" which value wasn’t lost in due course at all.
This book was читана Pushkin and, has apparently made upon it considerable impression.
Alexander Sergeevich has made extensive enough "Notes at reading" the Description of the earth of Kamchatka "S.P.Krasheninnikova" - last and incomplete literary work of the poet.

 Cossacks Vladimir Atlasov, Michael Staduhin, Ivan Kamchatyj (the peninsula name is possible from here tritely), seafarer Vitus Bering became pioneers of Kamchatka. Kamchatka was visited by such known seafarers, as James Cook, Charles Clark, Jean François Laperuz, Ivan Krusenstern, Vasily Golovin, Feodor Litke.
The Russian military man шлюп "Diana" went to northern part of Pacific ocean to make the hydrographic description of coastal waters and приокеанских the earths and to bring to Petropavlovsk and Ohotsk ship equipment.
At cape of Kind Hope he was detained by Englishmen, and the vessel has stayed under arrest one year and twenty five days.
Impudent maneuver hasn’t come true yet. On September, 23rd, 1809 "Diana" having rounded Australia and Tasmania, has come to Kamchatka.
Three years the crew of Russian seamen under Vasily Golovina’s command was engaged in studying of Kamchatka and North American possession of Russia. Result was the book "Remarks on Kamchatka and Russian America in 1809, 1810 and 1811".
After that Golovin has received the new task - to describe Kuril both Shantarskie Islands and coast of Tatar strait.
And again its scientific flight has been interrupted, this time Japanese.
On Kuril island Kunashir the group of Russian seamen together with their captain has been captured, and long days of the compelled inactivity were again pulled. However, inactivity - isn’t absolutely exact.
The inquisitive researcher with advantage has spent also it not the most pleasant for it time.
Left in 1816 its notes about adventures in a captivity in Japanese have caused a great interest in Russia and abroad.
So, the Far East, Kamchatka.
It drew inquisitive minds, called people which were baked not so much about the blessing own, how many рarents about the blessing to Fatherland.

 Good neighbourhood of m geniality in relations, mutual benefit in affairs - such saw Kamchatka to the Russian person from time immemorial, such it and came on this earth. Such he also lives on this earth.

 

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